Multi-objective approach for the performance and economic optimization of the two TED sub-cooled trans-critical carbon dioxide cycle
Although a thermoelectric device (TED) sub-cooler can improve the trans-critical carbon dioxide (TCO2) cycle, the maximum heating capacity by a single TED is limited by its internal properties. This paper integrates two serially connected and independently powered TED sub-cooler devices into the trans-critical carbon dioxide (TCO2) cycle to achieve a better share of the total heating capacity amongst the TED subcoolers. A multi-objective optimization approach is used to further optimize this new TCO2+2-TED cycle in terms of coefficient of performance (COP) and system size. A capital cost analysis is also conducted to prove that this implementation is economically feasible. In the analysis, the effect of the number of thermoelectric modules, the heating capacity ratio between the two TED sub-coolers, and the type of thermoelectric module have been studied. Furthermore, both the water heating and refrigeration case studies have been separately studied by using the NSGA-II algorithm. Results show that, in both cases, only one unique solution out of 50 in the Pareto front registered the TCO2+2-TED cycle, which offered a further 6.24% COP improvement for water heating over the common TCO2+TED cycle solutions. The TED sub-cooler costs 20% of the compressor, so the solution is reasonably economical.